Hybrid pixel detectors are widely used in many fields, including military, environment, industry and medical treatment. When integrating such a detector, a vertical connection technique called flip-chip bonding is almost the only way to realize the high-density interconnection between each pixel detector to the read-out chip. Such bonding can offer high-density I/O and a short interconnect distance, which can make the resulting device show excellent performance.
Electro deposition is a promising approach to enable a low cost and high yield bump bonding process, compared with conventional sputtering or evaporation which is currently utilized for small-scale production. Due to that, Indium bumping process using electroplating is selected, as a result of which indium bump arrays with a pitch of 220 μm and a diameter of 30 μm have been fabricated using a standard silicon wafer processing. UBM (under bump metallization) for indium bumping was Ti/Ni (300 Å/ 2000 Å). It helps to increase adhesion between the wafer and the bumps and also serves as an excellent diffusion barrier both at room temperature and at 200°C.
The indium is electroplated, using an indium sulfamate plating bath, and then formed into bumps through a reflow process. The reflow is made on a 200°C hot plate with a continuous flow of nitrogen over the wafer. During the reflow the indium is melted and forms into bumps due to surface tension. All the corresponding procedural processing steps and results are incorporated in this paper.
Source: Mid Sweden University
Author: Sjödin, Saron Anteneh